Global energy experts set to meet in Turkey

The Turkish energy minister and a senior economist are to deliver speeches at the opening of the Anadolu Agency co-sponsored, 20th International Energy and Environment Fair due to be held in Istanbul on April 24.

The convention, to be held over three days at the Istanbul Expo Center, will be the largest energy and environment fair to be held in Turkey, attracting approximately 16,000 local and foreign participants.

Energy Minister Taner Yildiz will open the fair, and International Energy Agency Chief Economist Fatih Birol will deliver a speech during the opening ceremony.

International energy experts will discuss a variety of issues including renewable energy technologies, developments in the renewable energy market, the operation and maintenance of power plants, nuclear power, natural gas and petroleum and the financing of energy projects and energy law.

The Anadolu Agency’s Deputy Director General Cagatay Culcuoglu will also chair a session entitled, “Nuclear energy and the latest developments in Turkey.”


Turkey awaits the new nuclear bid

Turkey is getting ready to choose a winning tender for its second nuclear plant and Istanbul’s third airport as early as tomorrow, amid a firesale of many state assets, including a key port in Istanbul and Turkey’s railroads,

Two high-profile tenders are expected to be finalized tomorrow, one for Istanbul’s third airport and the other for the second nuclear plant in Turkey, in the Black Sea province of Sinop.

The tender to build the third airport in Istanbul is set to be made at Ankara Esenboğa Airport tomorrow. Until now, 15 Turkish and two foreign companies have bought the tender specification document for Istanbul’s third airport, which was valued at around 7 billion euros ($9 billion) by Transport Minister Binali Yıldırım.

Many of Turkey’s leading companies, from Sabancı Holding to TAV, İÇ Holding and Limak Holding, had declared their interest in the tender. In order to spark competition for the third airport, the Transportation Ministry introduced some amendments to the specifications last week. The changes made in the specifications included lifting the three-company limit for consortiums and the requirement that a dominant partner own a 51 percent share.

Following the finalization of the tender approval, the first phase of construction is set to be completed in 2017 and will provide an initial capacity of 90 million passengers a year. Once all six of the planned runways are complete, the capacity is expected to increase to 150 million passengers. The tender, however, has been taken to court by the head office of the Turkish Chamber of Environmental Engineers (ÇMO) of the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects on the grounds that the project violated the existing legislation for the environmental impact assessment (ÇED) report preparation.

In the race to build Turkey’s second nuclear plant, a Japanese-French partnership appears one step ahead of its Chinese rival; the official announcement of the winning bid is expected by the end of this week, most likely tomorrow.

“The Japanese bid has the advantage, but there is still one or two issues that we need to work on together,” Energy Ministry sources told the Hürriyet Daily News April 29. “We believe that we will find a common way when [Japanese Prime Minister] Shinzo Abe comes to Turkey [May 3].”

Energy Minister Taner Yıldız said last week that Ankara would announce by the weekend who would construct the country’s second nuclear plant, a project located in the Black Sea province of Sinop that is expected to cost around $22 billion. Abe is expected to arrive in Turkey late this evening and will meet with his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, tomorrow. An agreement on the construction of the nuclear plant will be signed after the two prime ministers meet, Japanese daily Yomiuri Shimbun reported last week.

There have been various reports in the Japanese media citing unnamed government sources in recent weeks claiming that Japanese firms would build the Sinop plant. The construction of the plant in Sinop is to start in 2017. Turkey plans to have three nuclear plants by 2023.

US firms seek Turkish defense contracts, partners

A mission of US defense and aerospace industry firms, which include Bell, Boeing and Sikorsky, will visit Istanbul and Ankara to seek local partners. The US commerce undersecretary will lead the mission.

A large business mission of U.S.-based defense and aerospace companies, including world giants such as Bell Helicopter, Boeing, General Electric and Sikorsky, will arrive in Turkey on Dec. 3 to seek local contracts and partnerships, according to a written statement by the U.S. Embassy in Ankara. U.S. Commerce Undersecretary Francisco J. Sanchez will lead the trade mission of 19 American firms, the statement said.

“Turkey is a priority market for the U.S. Department of Commerce – and the only one in Europe. More and more American firms are discovering the Turkish market and seeking partners in this growing economy. I look forward to returning to Turkey with leading U.S. defense and aerospace companies to facilitate partnerships with Turkish firms,” Sanchez said.
The trade mission will visit Ankara from Dec. 3 to Dec. 5 before going to Istanbul on Dec. 6 for two days.

“The mission will identify opportunities for U.S.-Turkish business partnerships and offer trade financing to qualified firms. This business development effort is part of ongoing efforts to increase bilateral trade and investment between the United States and Turkey, under the aegis of the Framework for Strategic Economic and Commercial Cooperation,” the statement said.

Turkish sector companies are asked to request face-to-face introductions with U.S. companies on the mission.

U.S. companies won two contracts in the past year and are viewed as front-runners in two others. In April 2011, Sikorsky Aircraft defeated Italy’s AgustaWestland in a competition to lead the co-production of more than 100 T-70 utility helicopters, a Turkish version of the Black Hawk International. In January 2012, Turkey’s top procurement body picked Bell Helicopter Textron for the country’s light police helicopters.

The U.S. is among the strongest bidders for Turkey’s estimated $4 billion Long-Range Air and Missile Defense Systems program.

‘Vibrat’ ties

“Since President [Barack] Obama’s visit to Turkey in 2009, we are adding to our vibrant political and defense relationships through increased bilateral trade and investment,” U.S. Ambassador Francis J. Ricciardone noted in the press release.

“In 2011 we set a new record with nearly $20 billion in U.S.-Turkish trade. This year, we saw the first visit of a U.S. secretary of commerce to Turkey in 14 years and the first visit ever by a U.S. trade representative. Despite regional tensions, our trade and investment relationship is stronger than ever, building on Turkey’s economic success. In this way, we are fulfilling President Obama’s call to ‘renew the alliance between our nations and the friendship between our peoples.’”

The mission is organized the U.S. Mission’s Commercial Service in partnership with the Undersecretariat of the Defense Industry, Ankara Industry Chamber, Turkish Union of Chambers and Commodities Exchanges (TOBB), American Business Forum in Turkey and the Turkish Businessmen’s Association.

Diplomacy on Syria tilts toward Moscow

The epicenter of world diplomacy related to solving the Syrian crisis has begun to shift toward Moscow, as multiple diplomatic visitors converge on the Kremlin, beginning with U.N.-Arab League special envoy Kofi Annan, followed by Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

The busy schedule of visits can be seen as an extension of last week’s series of meetings between Syrian opposition groups and Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov.
Syria peace mediator Annan is expected to land in Moscow today for talks with President Vladimir Putin. The Kremlin said yesterday that Annan would arrive in Moscow today and meet Putin the following day for talks in which “Russia will underscore its support for the peace plan of Kofi Annan.” “The Russian side proceeds from the premise that this plan is the only viable platform for solving internal Syrian problems,” the Kremlin said in a statement.

Annan was also scheduled to meet Lavrov, while U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon travels to China, a country that, along with Russia, has blocked two U.N. Security Council resolutions placing sanctions on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s regime.

This will be Annan’s second visit to Moscow since he won support from former President Dmitry Medvedev for his initial six-point peace initiative. Lavrov met with the head of the opposition Syrian National Council last week, without any sign of a change in his stance on the possible ways to resolve the 16-month conflict. Russia said last week that it will oppose a new U.N. resolution on Syria that is militarily enforceable.

“History will judge this council,” U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said July 13, referring to Russia’s veto threat. “Its members must ask themselves whether continuing to allow the al-Assad regime to commit unspeakable violence against its own people is the legacy they want to leave,” she said, after reports of new killings in Tremseh.

Syria, energy, Middle East on the agenda

A day after Putin meets Annan, the Russian president will welcome Erdoğan to discuss the future of Syria, energy issues and the latest developments in the Middle East. Although not on the agenda, the Turkish jet downed on June 22 is also expected to be discussed between the two statesmen, according to diplomatic sources speaking to Hürriyet Daily News yesterday.

According to Turkish officials, Erdoğan is expected to ask for any records about the plane that Moscow has. The U.S. and the U.K. have recently handed over the information they had on the Turkish jet. Russia’s foreign minister said June 30 that Russia possesses “objective observation data” concerning the downing of the Turkish jet, and is prepared to present it.

Thanks to a consultation mechanism established by the foreign ministries of both countries, delegations from Turkey and Russia are expected to meet in the fall within the framework of periodic meetings. During their meeting at the G20 summit in Los Cabos last month, the two leaders agreed to meet privately before the fall meetings. In a phone call on June 27, Putin and Erdoğan discussed the situation in Syria and agreed to meet on July 18 in Moscow. Russia, Syria’s main ally, has firmly resisted any form of outside pressure on al-Assad to step aside.


A year of rediscovery for US and Turkey

The United States and Turkish governments in many senses rediscovered each other in 2011, achieving constructive engagement — especially in the aftermath of the people’s revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa.

In stark contrast, the previous year Ankara irked many in Washington with its relatively accommodating stance vis-à-vis Tehran. Deep tactical differences between the two governments on how to deal with Iran’s controversial nuclear program yielded to Turkey’s decision to cast a no vote for sanctions on Iran in the UN Security Council. The US, in return, raised its concerns publicly and privately to a point where there were untypically harsh exchanges between US President Barack Obama and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan during a meeting on the sidelines of a G-20 summit in Toronto. Amidst serious doubts about the direction of Turkey, some American observers even speculated the country was changing its traditional Western trajectory

US-Turkish official relations miraculously recovering from that low point and quickly ascending to one of its best periods in history this year can mainly be attributed to the so-called Arab Spring. Despite initial confusion, both governments eventually adopted a pro-change strategy in the region and found reliable partners in each other. Turkey — with its increasing appeal to the Arab Street and improved political influence — actively helped many US goals such as ousting the Col. Gaddafi regime in Libya and boosting pressure on the Assad regime in Syria. Turkey considers its US ties important for securing its interests in the regional power play evident between an Iran-led Shiite bloc and Sunni nations. In a dramatic twist of events, Ankara undoubtedly positioned itself with the US and other Western allies by agreeing to host a critical NATO missile defense radar that Iran sees as a threat. Iran, in return, is using its influence in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon to block Turkish reintegration with the rest of the region for the first time since the collapse of the Ottoman state.

Iraq, once a subject of deep resentment between the US and Turkey due to Washington’s unilateral occupation and Ankara’s hesitation to support it, has turned into a crucial ground for cooperation. In the aftermath of the American troop withdrawal, both governments want to see a unified and stable Iraq. In the event that the country breaks up, Turkey’s enhanced economic, political and social ties with the Kurdish north closely allied with Washington would serve as a cushion. The US government has proved sensitive to Turkey’s national security concerns regarding the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), which uses the mountains in northern Iraq as a safe haven for its terrorists. Intelligence aid provided to Turkey will not be interrupted by the halt of US operations in Iraq. Four US surveillance drones have been transferred to the US air base in İncirlik, Adana, and have been operating from there. In November, the US Congress approved the sale of three SuperCobra attack helicopters to Turkey.

Historically, the most difficult terrain for Turkey in Washington has been Capitol Hill. 2011 was no exception, especially given the political sensitivities aroused by Turkey’s seriously deteriorated relations with Israel. Pro-Israel forces joined with traditionally hostile elements such as the Armenian and Greek lobbies to make life difficult for Turkey in the US Congress. However, as usual, the US House of Representatives fell short of passing a resolution marking the events of 1915 as the “Armenian genocide.” The House adopted Resolution 306 in December that urged Turkey to safeguard its Christian heritage and return confiscated Christian properties.

On the other hand, the Obama administration applauded an August decree by the Erdoğan government that invited non-Muslims to reclaim churches and synagogues that were confiscated 75 years ago. The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, which had initially blocked Francis Ricciardone’s appointment as US ambassador to Ankara, approved the nomination in September. What is remarkable was the fact that despite the rift with Israel, the closest US ally in the Middle East, Washington was able to improve its relations with Ankara on a separate track, while urging restraint to both sides. Even Ankara’s veiled threats to Tel Aviv over its cooperation with the Greek Cypriot government on natural gas exploration in a coastal area disputed by the Turkish Cypriots received a relatively muted response from Washington.

President Obama and Prime Minister Erdoğan personally invested generously in bilateral relations and have largely been instrumental in setting the current positive tone from atop. Perhaps only second to his British counterpart, President Obama has frequently called Erdoğan to consult and reflect on the developments in the region. Obama has made it clear he attaches a special value to relations with Turkey by making Ankara one of his first foreign destinations upon assuming office. Obama and Erdoğan were quick to recover from the hiccups of 2010 and built a cordial relationship, unparalleled by any American and Turkish leaders.

At the lower levels of bureaucracy, especially at the State Department, suspicions concerning Turkey’s relatively independent foreign policy linger to some extent. Likewise, American ambitions in the region keep Turkish cynicism alive in a nation where the US government’s public image remains low. However, Turkish officials are relieved by the visibly improved level and frequency of official consultations. It’s very rare for both the US president and vice president to visit a foreign nation in the same term. Vice President Joe Biden’s successful visit to Turkey in early December only reaffirmed the positive trend in US-Turkish relations.

From Afghanistan to the Balkans, from Central Asia to Africa, Turkey’s dynamic foreign policy and growing economic clout is increasingly regarded as an asset by the Americans. When the US is confronted by hurdles in continuing its military dominance and faces resistance from local populations, an emerging Turkey provides a useful venue for many American political and economic projects. Turkey’s improving democracy and strong security ties with the West — despite diminishing prospects for EU membership — serve as an antidote to the clash of civilizations that the US is also trying to avert. Apparently there is no better ally than Turkey practically and ideologically to counter anti-Western radical and terrorist movements emanating from the Muslim world. However, a lack of meaningful trade between the two countries and relatively poor public knowledge remains a mutual challenge.


Nabucco makes Azeri gas move

The Nabucco pipeline consortium submitted its bid on Saturday to export sought-after Azeri gas, claiming that it is the most viable solution for bringing energy supplies to Europe from the Caucasus region.
Nabucco offers the best way to transport gas from Azerbaijan and other countries, Reinhard Mitschek says.
Nabucco offers the best way to transport gas from Azerbaijan and other countries, Reinhard Mitschek says.

However, Nabucco’s smaller rivals remained silent before the deadline to submit their technical and commercial proposals to Baku.

Nabbuco’s offer came only a few days after a fourth competitor emerged to buy and sell natural gas for the Azerbaijani soil.

British Petroleum may offer Baku to build a 1,300-kilometer alternative pipeline, according to a Financial Times report last week.

“The scheme is a new entrant in the highly charged competition to build a supply route to the Caspian basin,” the paper said.

The BP plan is to carry gas through Turkey and then to the Romanian-Hungarian border.

Along with Nabucco, the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline and the Interconnector-Turkey- Greece-Italy, or ITGI, schemes were also expected to sumbit their offers to the Azerbaijan’s state-run Socar on Saturday, but no official announcements had been made by the time the Hürriyet Daily News went to print Sunday evening.

Azerbaijan is expected to decide which project to prioritize before the end of 2011.

Nabucco confident

“We are convinced that Nabucco offers the best way to transport gas from Azerbaijan and other countries,” Nabucco Managing Director Reinhard Mitschek said in a statement.

“Nabucco is Europe’s flagship project for the Southern Corridor. It is cost-effective and competitive,” Reuters quoted him as saying.

He said Nabucco’s intergovernmental agreement and project support deals ensured backing for the pipeline.

Some analysts argue that Nabucco’s aim of transporting up to 31 billion cubic metres of gas a year is too ambitious and point to delays in the project timetable as a sign that it will not get off the ground.

Nabucco is backed by OMV, Germany’s RWE , Hungary’s MOL , Turkey’s Botas, BEH of Bulgaria and Romania’s Transgaz. The consortium said Friday that Germany’s Bayerngas also intends to join.

The European Union supports Nabucco as a means of reducing the continent’s reliance on Russian energy.

Azerbaijan’s Shah Deniz II gas field, which is being developed by BP, Statoil and Socar, is estimated to contain 1.2 trillion cubic metres of gas, which European companies hope can supply them for decades. k HDN


Sunday, October 2, 2011
ISTANBUL- Hürriyet Daily News

Turkey cancels natural gas contract with Russia

Turkey has decided that it will not renew for another five years a 25-year-old natural gas deal with Russia on the grounds that the energy-rich country’s supplier Gazprom has declined to discount the natural gas it sells to Turkey via the Russia-Turkey Western Pipeline.

Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız (Photo: Today's Zaman)
Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız (Photo: Today's Zaman)

According to an announcement made by the state-owned Turkish Pipeline Corporation (BOTAŞ) on Saturday, Turkey has decided to discontinue buying natural gas from Russia next year via the western pipeline due to Gazprom´s refusal to reduce the price of natural gas to what Turkey considers a reasonable level.

Speaking to reporters in Ankara on Saturday, Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız said, “Our cooperation with Russia will move forward and grow stronger,” emphasizing that cooperation with Russia would continue by means of the Blue Stream pipeline on the Black Sea bed Russia supplies 6 billion cubic meters of natural gas to Turkey annually via Ukraine, Bulgaria and Romania through the Russia-Turkey Western Pipeline agreement, which has been in effect since 1986 and is set to expire at the end of December.

Turkey has been persistent in its demands since Gazprom, Russia’s biggest natural gas company, which meets 67 percent of Turkey’s requirements, reduced the price of the natural gas it was selling to the Italian Edison company, which filed a lawsuit last November at the Court of Arbitration in Stockholm against Promgaz, a company jointly owned by Gazprom and Italy’s Eni. The suit called for a reduction in the price of Russian gas in a long-term contract, and Gazprom agreed to cut its gas prices for Italy’s Edison in July.

Russia has overtaken Germany as Turkey’s primary trade partner as bilateral trade is expected to surpass $40 billion by the end of 2011. As well as a total of more than two-thirds of its natural gas, 20 percent of Turkey’s imported oil is provided by Russia. Nearly 3 million Russian tourists visit Turkey every year, and the two countries reciprocally removed visa requirements in mid-April. Moreover, Turkey has also removed Russia from its list of external threats. Turkish contractors have already completed some 1,200 projects around Russia, representing a total value of $32 billion.

Russia and Turkey also clinched a deal for the construction of Turkey’s first nuclear power plant in the coastal town of Akkuyu, in the southern province of Mersin. According to the agreement, the two countries will cooperate in the construction and operation of the power plant. A consortium led by state-controlled Russian builder AtomStroyExport will construct the plant in Akkuyu, paying all of the construction costs for the plant, which is estimated to be some $20 billion.



02 October 2011, Sunday / TODAY’S ZAMAN, İSTANBUL

US supports revenue-sharing agreement in Cyprus for natural gas

The United States on Wednesday said it wanted to see Cyprus’ resources shared between the two communities living on the island.

Victoria Nuland, the spokesperson for the US State Department, said the US is interested in “revenue-sharing” as proposed by the UN.

“We are interested in this proposal for UN mediation of revenue-sharing. Overall, though, we would like to see a de-escalation of rhetoric and tension so that the UN process can move forward in a good environment,” Nuland told a daily press briefing in regards to a proposal by Turkish Cypriot leader Derviş Eroğlu.

Nuland said the US continued to support the UN-led mediation on Cyprus and it discouraged any rhetoric or action that could negatively affect a peaceful settlement.

“I would note that there has recently been a request for the UN to engage in some sort of mediation on a revenue-sharing agreement for natural gas developed off of Cyprus, and we understand that the UN is considering that request, and we would consider that it would be quite constructive if the two communities could begin to work on deescalating tensions in a way similar to that,” Nuland said.

The spokesperson said the US would support some sort of mediation, but its fundamental issue was that there is a need for resolving the long-standing Cyprus issue under the auspices of the UN.

Responding to a question on if there was a difference between the perspectives of the US and the EU on oil exploration initiatives, Nuland said: “I think if there is a dispute reconciliation resolution mechanism that could be agreed on by all concerned parties that would ensure that the communities were able to share the resources, then that would be something that we would be supportive of. But again, we’re pleased to see that people are talking about resolving this dispute peacefully, de-escalating the rhetoric, and more generally, putting our energy into supporting the UN process for Cyprus’ reconciliation.”

On Sept. 21, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and President Derviş Eroğlu of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (KKTC) signed an agreement in New York on the delineation of the continental shelf between the two countries in the east Mediterranean.

The deal gives Turkey the green light to search for oil and gas in Turkish Cypriot waters. The agreement follows a Greek Cypriot move to start offshore drilling for natural gas and oil in the southeast of the eastern Mediterranean island.

On Sept. 22, the KKTC Council of Ministers gave an exploration license to the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) to explore for oil and natural gas in the sea around Cyprus.

President Eroğlu met with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in New York on Sept. 24, and proposed to suspend oil and natural gas exploration until a comprehensive solution was found to the Cyprus question or, if the Greek Cypriot administration insisted on oil exploration, a committee to be set up by the two sides on the island to decide how to share any riches found. However, because the Greek Cypriot side failed to give a positive response to that offer, TPAO, using the Piri Reis vessel, began geophysical research and seismic data collection studies on behalf of the KKTC on Sept. 26.

In 2010, the Greek Cypriot administration and Israel signed an accord demarcating their maritime borders to facilitate a search for mineral deposits in the eastern Mediterranean.

The Greek Cypriot side has signed a deal with US-based Noble Energy to start drilling in a 324,000-hectare economic zone near Israeli waters.


29 September 2011, Thursday / TODAY’S ZAMAN, İSTANBUL

Gas prices dispute may drive Turkey to cancel contract with Russia

Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız has said that if Russia does not respond to Turkey’s demands to reduce natural gas prices, Turkey plans to terminate the contract it has with its northeastern neighbor.

Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız
Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız

Speaking to reporters in Ankara on Thursday, Yıldız, in response to a question regarding natural gas prices, which have increased by 39 percent in the last two-and-a-half years, said: “We are going to take a close look at the contracts on the purchase of all raw essentials that are soon to expire. The agreement for the Russia-Turkey Western Pipeline is one of those contracts that need to be looked over again, and if we do not receive the discount we are expecting, it will be terminated.”

Yıldız previously spoke on the issue in March when he said: “We definitely understand the conditions the producer countries are in. However, it is normal for us to expect a reduction in natural gas prices,” noting that Turkey wanted to discuss the oil-indexed natural gas price to find other solutions to determine the cost. He also said the two countries should move towards coming up with a structure that gives priority to strategic cooperation and trade.

Turkey has been persistent in its demands since Gazprom, Russia’s biggest natural gas company, which meets 67 percent of Turkey’s requirements, reduced the price of the natural gas it was selling to the Italian Edison Company, which filed a lawsuit last November at the Court of Arbitration in Stockholm against Promgas, a company jointly owned by Gazprom and Italy’s Eni. The suit called for a reduction in the price of Russian gas in a long-term contract, and Gazprom agreed to cut its gas prices for Italy’s Edison in July.

Gazprom confirmed that the dispute had been resolved since it would not be a major loss for Gazprom as Edison does not buy more than 2 billion cubic meters from the Russian company.

The agreement between Turkey and Russia on the transfer of natural gas via the Russia-Turkey Western Pipeline will expire at the end of 2011, and Gazprom’s deal with Edison seems to have complicated its negotiations with larger gas consumers like Turkey.



29 September 2011, Thursday / TODAY’S ZAMAN, İSTANBUL

Turkish minister demands Russia slash gas prices

Turkey demanded a reduction in prices for natural gas transferred via the Western Line pipeline, Turkey’s energy minister said during a conversation with journalists on Thursday.

Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız. AA photo
Energy and Natural Resources Minister Taner Yıldız. AA photo

“We asked for a reduction in the price of natural gas that we import from Russia via the Western Line,” Minister Taner Yıldız said. “And if Russia does not respond to our demand, we will end the contract.”

The contract between Turkey and Russia will expire at the end of 2011.

Yıldız said natural gas prices increased 39 percent in the last 29 months.

Thursday, September 29, 2011
ANKARA – Anatolia News Agency